logo 30 seconds of code Curated collection of useful JavaScript snippets that you can understand in 30 seconds or less.



Math

approximatelyEqual

Checks if two numbers are approximately equal to each other.

Use Math.abs() to compare the absolute difference of the two values to epsilon. Omit the third parameter, epsilon, to use a default value of 0.001.

const approximatelyEqual = (v1, v2, epsilon = 0.001) => Math.abs(v1 - v2) < epsilon;
approximatelyEqual(Math.PI / 2.0, 1.5708); // true

average

Returns the average of two or more numbers.

Use Array.prototype.reduce() to add each value to an accumulator, initialized with a value of 0, divide by the length of the array.

const average = (...nums) => nums.reduce((acc, val) => acc + val, 0) / nums.length;
average(...[1, 2, 3]); // 2
average(1, 2, 3); // 2

averageBy

Returns the average of an array, after mapping each element to a value using the provided function.

Use Array.prototype.map() to map each element to the value returned by fn, Array.prototype.reduce() to add each value to an accumulator, initialized with a value of 0, divide by the length of the array.

const averageBy = (arr, fn) =>
  arr.map(typeof fn === 'function' ? fn : val => val[fn]).reduce((acc, val) => acc + val, 0) /
  arr.length;
averageBy([{ n: 4 }, { n: 2 }, { n: 8 }, { n: 6 }], o => o.n); // 5
averageBy([{ n: 4 }, { n: 2 }, { n: 8 }, { n: 6 }], 'n'); // 5

binomialCoefficient

Evaluates the binomial coefficient of two integers n and k.

Use Number.isNaN() to check if any of the two values is NaN. Check if k is less than 0, greater than or equal to n, equal to 1 or n - 1 and return the appropriate result. Check if n - k is less than k and switch their values accordingly. Loop from 2 through k and calculate the binomial coefficient. Use Math.round() to account for rounding errors in the calculation.

const binomialCoefficient = (n, k) => {
  if (Number.isNaN(n) || Number.isNaN(k)) return NaN;
  if (k < 0 || k > n) return 0;
  if (k === 0 || k === n) return 1;
  if (k === 1 || k === n - 1) return n;
  if (n - k < k) k = n - k;
  let res = n;
  for (let j = 2; j <= k; j++) res *= (n - j + 1) / j;
  return Math.round(res);
};
binomialCoefficient(8, 2); // 28

clampNumber

Clamps num within the inclusive range specified by the boundary values a and b.

If num falls within the range, return num. Otherwise, return the nearest number in the range.

const clampNumber = (num, a, b) => Math.max(Math.min(num, Math.max(a, b)), Math.min(a, b));
clampNumber(2, 3, 5); // 3
clampNumber(1, -1, -5); // -1

degreesToRads

Converts an angle from degrees to radians.

Use Math.PI and the degree to radian formula to convert the angle from degrees to radians.

const degreesToRads = deg => (deg * Math.PI) / 180.0;
degreesToRads(90.0); // ~1.5708

digitize

Converts a number to an array of digits.

Convert the number to a string, using the spread operator (...) to build an array. Use Array.prototype.map() and parseInt() to transform each value to an integer.

const digitize = n => [...`${n}`].map(i => parseInt(i));
digitize(123); // [1, 2, 3]

distance

Returns the distance between two points.

Use Math.hypot() to calculate the Euclidean distance between two points.

const distance = (x0, y0, x1, y1) => Math.hypot(x1 - x0, y1 - y0);
distance(1, 1, 2, 3); // 2.23606797749979

elo

Computes the new ratings between two or more opponents using the Elo rating system. It takes an array of pre-ratings and returns an array containing post-ratings. The array should be ordered from best performer to worst performer (winner -> loser).

Use the exponent ** operator and math operators to compute the expected score (chance of winning). of each opponent and compute the new rating for each. Loop through the ratings, using each permutation to compute the post-Elo rating for each player in a pairwise fashion. Omit the second argument to use the default kFactor of 32.

const elo = ([...ratings], kFactor = 32, selfRating) => {
  const [a, b] = ratings;
  const expectedScore = (self, opponent) => 1 / (1 + 10 ** ((opponent - self) / 400));
  const newRating = (rating, i) =>
    (selfRating || rating) + kFactor * (i - expectedScore(i ? a : b, i ? b : a));
  if (ratings.length === 2) return [newRating(a, 1), newRating(b, 0)];

  for (let i = 0, len = ratings.length; i < len; i++) {
    let j = i;
    while (j < len - 1) {
      j++;
      [ratings[i], ratings[j]] = elo([ratings[i], ratings[j]], kFactor);
    }
  }
  return ratings;
};
// Standard 1v1s
elo([1200, 1200]); // [1216, 1184]
elo([1200, 1200], 64); // [1232, 1168]
// 4 player FFA, all same rank
elo([1200, 1200, 1200, 1200]).map(Math.round); // [1246, 1215, 1185, 1154]
/*
For teams, each rating can adjusted based on own team's average rating vs.
average rating of opposing team, with the score being added to their
own individual rating by supplying it as the third argument.
*/

factorial

Calculates the factorial of a number.

Use recursion. If n is less than or equal to 1, return 1. Otherwise, return the product of n and the factorial of n - 1. Throws an exception if n is a negative number.

const factorial = n =>
  n < 0
    ? (() => {
      throw new TypeError('Negative numbers are not allowed!');
    })()
    : n <= 1
      ? 1
      : n * factorial(n - 1);
factorial(6); // 720

fibonacci

Generates an array, containing the Fibonacci sequence, up until the nth term.

Create an empty array of the specific length, initializing the first two values (0 and 1). Use Array.prototype.reduce() to add values into the array, using the sum of the last two values, except for the first two.

const fibonacci = n =>
  Array.from({ length: n }).reduce(
    (acc, val, i) => acc.concat(i > 1 ? acc[i - 1] + acc[i - 2] : i),
    []
  );
fibonacci(6); // [0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5]

gcd

Calculates the greatest common divisor between two or more numbers/arrays.

The inner _gcd function uses recursion. Base case is when y equals 0. In this case, return x. Otherwise, return the GCD of y and the remainder of the division x/y.

const gcd = (...arr) => {
  const _gcd = (x, y) => (!y ? x : gcd(y, x % y));
  return [...arr].reduce((a, b) => _gcd(a, b));
};
gcd(8, 36); // 4
gcd(...[12, 8, 32]); // 4

geometricProgression

Initializes an array containing the numbers in the specified range where start and end are inclusive and the ratio between two terms is step. Returns an error if step equals 1.

Use Array.from(), Math.log() and Math.floor() to create an array of the desired length, Array.prototype.map() to fill with the desired values in a range. Omit the second argument, start, to use a default value of 1. Omit the third argument, step, to use a default value of 2.

const geometricProgression = (end, start = 1, step = 2) =>
  Array.from({ length: Math.floor(Math.log(end / start) / Math.log(step)) + 1 }).map(
    (v, i) => start * step ** i
  );
geometricProgression(256); // [1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256]
geometricProgression(256, 3); // [3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 96, 192]
geometricProgression(256, 1, 4); // [1, 4, 16, 64, 256]

hammingDistance

Calculates the Hamming distance between two values.

Use XOR operator (^) to find the bit difference between the two numbers, convert to a binary string using toString(2). Count and return the number of 1s in the string, using match(/1/g).

const hammingDistance = (num1, num2) => ((num1 ^ num2).toString(2).match(/1/g) || '').length;
hammingDistance(2, 3); // 1

inRange

Checks if the given number falls within the given range.

Use arithmetic comparison to check if the given number is in the specified range. If the second parameter, end, is not specified, the range is considered to be from 0 to start.

const inRange = (n, start, end = null) => {
  if (end && start > end) [end, start] = [start, end];
  return end == null ? n >= 0 && n < start : n >= start && n < end;
};
inRange(3, 2, 5); // true
inRange(3, 4); // true
inRange(2, 3, 5); // false
inRange(3, 2); // false

isDivisible

Checks if the first numeric argument is divisible by the second one.

Use the modulo operator (%) to check if the remainder is equal to 0.

const isDivisible = (dividend, divisor) => dividend % divisor === 0;
isDivisible(6, 3); // true

isEven

Returns true if the given number is even, false otherwise.

Checks whether a number is odd or even using the modulo (%) operator. Returns true if the number is even, false if the number is odd.

const isEven = num => num % 2 === 0;
isEven(3); // false

isPrime

Checks if the provided integer is a prime number.

Check numbers from 2 to the square root of the given number. Return false if any of them divides the given number, else return true, unless the number is less than 2.

const isPrime = num => {
  const boundary = Math.floor(Math.sqrt(num));
  for (var i = 2; i <= boundary; i++) if (num % i === 0) return false;
  return num >= 2;
};
isPrime(11); // true

lcm

Returns the least common multiple of two or more numbers.

Use the greatest common divisor (GCD) formula and the fact that lcm(x,y) = x * y / gcd(x,y) to determine the least common multiple. The GCD formula uses recursion.

const lcm = (...arr) => {
  const gcd = (x, y) => (!y ? x : gcd(y, x % y));
  const _lcm = (x, y) => (x * y) / gcd(x, y);
  return [...arr].reduce((a, b) => _lcm(a, b));
};
lcm(12, 7); // 84
lcm(...[1, 3, 4, 5]); // 60

luhnCheck

Implementation of the Luhn Algorithm used to validate a variety of identification numbers, such as credit card numbers, IMEI numbers, National Provider Identifier numbers etc.

Use String.prototype.split(''), Array.prototype.reverse() and Array.prototype.map() in combination with parseInt() to obtain an array of digits. Use Array.prototype.splice(0,1) to obtain the last digit. Use Array.prototype.reduce() to implement the Luhn Algorithm. Return true if sum is divisible by 10, false otherwise.

const luhnCheck = num => {
  let arr = (num + '')
    .split('')
    .reverse()
    .map(x => parseInt(x));
  let lastDigit = arr.splice(0, 1)[0];
  let sum = arr.reduce((acc, val, i) => (i % 2 !== 0 ? acc + val : acc + ((val * 2) % 9) || 9), 0);
  sum += lastDigit;
  return sum % 10 === 0;
};
luhnCheck('4485275742308327'); // true
luhnCheck(6011329933655299); //  false
luhnCheck(123456789); // false

maxBy

Returns the maximum value of an array, after mapping each element to a value using the provided function.

Use Array.prototype.map() to map each element to the value returned by fn, Math.max() to get the maximum value.

const maxBy = (arr, fn) => Math.max(...arr.map(typeof fn === 'function' ? fn : val => val[fn]));
maxBy([{ n: 4 }, { n: 2 }, { n: 8 }, { n: 6 }], o => o.n); // 8
maxBy([{ n: 4 }, { n: 2 }, { n: 8 }, { n: 6 }], 'n'); // 8

median

Returns the median of an array of numbers.

Find the middle of the array, use Array.prototype.sort() to sort the values. Return the number at the midpoint if length is odd, otherwise the average of the two middle numbers.

const median = arr => {
  const mid = Math.floor(arr.length / 2),
    nums = [...arr].sort((a, b) => a - b);
  return arr.length % 2 !== 0 ? nums[mid] : (nums[mid - 1] + nums[mid]) / 2;
};
median([5, 6, 50, 1, -5]); // 5

minBy

Returns the minimum value of an array, after mapping each element to a value using the provided function.

Use Array.prototype.map() to map each element to the value returned by fn, Math.min() to get the maximum value.

const minBy = (arr, fn) => Math.min(...arr.map(typeof fn === 'function' ? fn : val => val[fn]));
minBy([{ n: 4 }, { n: 2 }, { n: 8 }, { n: 6 }], o => o.n); // 2
minBy([{ n: 4 }, { n: 2 }, { n: 8 }, { n: 6 }], 'n'); // 2

percentile

Uses the percentile formula to calculate how many numbers in the given array are less or equal to the given value.

Use Array.prototype.reduce() to calculate how many numbers are below the value and how many are the same value and apply the percentile formula.

const percentile = (arr, val) =>
  (100 * arr.reduce((acc, v) => acc + (v < val ? 1 : 0) + (v === val ? 0.5 : 0), 0)) / arr.length;
percentile([1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10], 6); // 55

powerset

Returns the powerset of a given array of numbers.

Use Array.prototype.reduce() combined with Array.prototype.map() to iterate over elements and combine into an array containing all combinations.

const powerset = arr => arr.reduce((a, v) => a.concat(a.map(r => [v].concat(r))), [[]]);
powerset([1, 2]); // [[], [1], [2], [2, 1]]

primes

Generates primes up to a given number, using the Sieve of Eratosthenes.

Generate an array from 2 to the given number. Use Array.prototype.filter() to filter out the values divisible by any number from 2 to the square root of the provided number.

const primes = num => {
  let arr = Array.from({ length: num - 1 }).map((x, i) => i + 2),
    sqroot = Math.floor(Math.sqrt(num)),
    numsTillSqroot = Array.from({ length: sqroot - 1 }).map((x, i) => i + 2);
  numsTillSqroot.forEach(x => (arr = arr.filter(y => y % x !== 0 || y === x)));
  return arr;
};
primes(10); // [2,3,5,7]

radsToDegrees

Converts an angle from radians to degrees.

Use Math.PI and the radian to degree formula to convert the angle from radians to degrees.

const radsToDegrees = rad => (rad * 180.0) / Math.PI;
radsToDegrees(Math.PI / 2); // 90

randomIntArrayInRange

Returns an array of n random integers in the specified range.

Use Array.from() to create an empty array of the specific length, Math.random() to generate a random number and map it to the desired range, using Math.floor() to make it an integer.

const randomIntArrayInRange = (min, max, n = 1) =>
  Array.from({ length: n }, () => Math.floor(Math.random() * (max - min + 1)) + min);
randomIntArrayInRange(12, 35, 10); // [ 34, 14, 27, 17, 30, 27, 20, 26, 21, 14 ]

randomIntegerInRange

Returns a random integer in the specified range.

Use Math.random() to generate a random number and map it to the desired range, using Math.floor() to make it an integer.

const randomIntegerInRange = (min, max) => Math.floor(Math.random() * (max - min + 1)) + min;
randomIntegerInRange(0, 5); // 2

randomNumberInRange

Returns a random number in the specified range.

Use Math.random() to generate a random value, map it to the desired range using multiplication.

const randomNumberInRange = (min, max) => Math.random() * (max - min) + min;
randomNumberInRange(2, 10); // 6.0211363285087005

round

Rounds a number to a specified amount of digits.

Use Math.round() and template literals to round the number to the specified number of digits. Omit the second argument, decimals to round to an integer.

const round = (n, decimals = 0) => Number(`${Math.round(`${n}e${decimals}`)}e-${decimals}`);
round(1.005, 2); // 1.01

sdbm

Hashes the input string into a whole number.

Use String.prototype.split('') and Array.prototype.reduce() to create a hash of the input string, utilizing bit shifting.

const sdbm = str => {
  let arr = str.split('');
  return arr.reduce(
    (hashCode, currentVal) =>
      (hashCode = currentVal.charCodeAt(0) + (hashCode << 6) + (hashCode << 16) - hashCode),
    0
  );
};
sdbm('name'); // -3521204949

standardDeviation

Returns the standard deviation of an array of numbers.

Use Array.prototype.reduce() to calculate the mean, variance and the sum of the variance of the values, the variance of the values, then determine the standard deviation. You can omit the second argument to get the sample standard deviation or set it to true to get the population standard deviation.

const standardDeviation = (arr, usePopulation = false) => {
  const mean = arr.reduce((acc, val) => acc + val, 0) / arr.length;
  return Math.sqrt(
    arr.reduce((acc, val) => acc.concat((val - mean) ** 2), []).reduce((acc, val) => acc + val, 0) /
      (arr.length - (usePopulation ? 0 : 1))
  );
};
standardDeviation([10, 2, 38, 23, 38, 23, 21]); // 13.284434142114991 (sample)
standardDeviation([10, 2, 38, 23, 38, 23, 21], true); // 12.29899614287479 (population)

sum

Returns the sum of two or more numbers/arrays.

Use Array.prototype.reduce() to add each value to an accumulator, initialized with a value of 0.

const sum = (...arr) => [...arr].reduce((acc, val) => acc + val, 0);
sum(...[1, 2, 3, 4]); // 10

sumBy

Returns the sum of an array, after mapping each element to a value using the provided function.

Use Array.prototype.map() to map each element to the value returned by fn, Array.prototype.reduce() to add each value to an accumulator, initialized with a value of 0.

const sumBy = (arr, fn) =>
  arr.map(typeof fn === 'function' ? fn : val => val[fn]).reduce((acc, val) => acc + val, 0);
sumBy([{ n: 4 }, { n: 2 }, { n: 8 }, { n: 6 }], o => o.n); // 20
sumBy([{ n: 4 }, { n: 2 }, { n: 8 }, { n: 6 }], 'n'); // 20

sumPower

Returns the sum of the powers of all the numbers from start to end (both inclusive).

Use Array.prototype.fill() to create an array of all the numbers in the target range, Array.prototype.map() and the exponent operator (**) to raise them to power and Array.prototype.reduce() to add them together. Omit the second argument, power, to use a default power of 2. Omit the third argument, start, to use a default starting value of 1.

const sumPower = (end, power = 2, start = 1) =>
  Array(end + 1 - start)
    .fill(0)
    .map((x, i) => (i + start) ** power)
    .reduce((a, b) => a + b, 0);
sumPower(10); // 385
sumPower(10, 3); // 3025
sumPower(10, 3, 5); // 2925

toSafeInteger

Converts a value to a safe integer.

Use Math.max() and Math.min() to find the closest safe value. Use Math.round() to convert to an integer.

const toSafeInteger = num =>
  Math.round(Math.max(Math.min(num, Number.MAX_SAFE_INTEGER), Number.MIN_SAFE_INTEGER));
toSafeInteger('3.2'); // 3
toSafeInteger(Infinity); // 9007199254740991